A New Urbanism Evaluation – Comparing South African and International


Are Current Planning Schemes for Neighbourhoods and Cities Working or Should New Urbanism Take Charge?

New Urbanism

New Urbanism is first and foremost an urban design movement – meaning it is a style (a way of thinking) or prevailing inclination in urban design that upholds a rigid ideal or philosophy and is promoted and followed or practised by specific individuals and/or groups.

(Boeing; et al. 2014) 1

At the end of World War II, urban planning mostly centred around the use of municipal zoning to isolate residential from commercial and industrial expansion; focused on the production of low-density single-family detached dwellings as the favoured housing model for the emergent middle class. The physical parting of where people live, work, shop and spend leisure time, together with low housing density made vehicles indispensable for everyday transportation and aided hugely to the rise of a culture of vehicular dependency.

(Kelbaugh, Douglas S., 2002) 2


Figure 1: Abstract Map of Paris – indicating New Urbanist Approach
to City Planning
Source: Artwork by Scott a.k.a. JazzberryBlue as seen on

New Urbanism originated in the early 1980’s as a way of alternative thinking for future urban planning, architecture and movement (of all modes) by reinvesting in design,

community and place. New Urbanism fought predominant development patterns which fixated more on building dispersed housing far from traditional city centres and key
roads as well as outdated urban renewal tactics that ruined the fabric of historic neighbourhoods and secluded oncestable communities. These outdated ways of development are collectively known as “city ‘sprawling’”.

(New Urbanism – Principles of New Urbanism, 2018) 3

New Urbanism is intensely influenced by urban design principles and practices such as the environmental movement, TOD (transit-oriented development) and TND (traditional neighbourhood design). These notions can be bound into two concepts: building a sense of community and the progress of ecological practices.

(Wear. A., “planning, funding and delivering social infrastructure…”, Feb 2014,) 4

Since its inception, New Urbanism has influenced many characteristics of urban planning, municipal land-use schemes and real-estate development. The movement has altered the conversation, from debating the alternative forms of development to discussing how best to preserve, develop, reinstate and design our neighbourhoods, cities and regions. New Urbanism is also regarded as the primary catalyst to, now common, updated (modern) development approaches and configurations, including, mixed-use developments; TND; TOD; affordable housing integrated with design standards; the expansion and design of complete and attractive streets.

(Wear. A., “planning, funding and delivering social infrastructure…”, Feb 2014,) 4

F1 edit.large

Figure 2: Differences between New Urbanism and Urban City Sprawling
Source: Drawing by Duany Plater Zyberk, as shown in Spielberg, F., “The traditional Neighbourhood Development: How Will Traffic Engineers Respond?” ITE J. 1989; 59:17
(Edited by W.Retief, 2018)

New Urbanism’s ideals can be set in central principles or characteristics in order to identify the movement and way of thinking. Some of these characteristics are:

• The neighbourhood has a noticeable centre. This is often a square of grass or vegetation and sometimes an eventful or notable street corner. A transport stop (bus/train/metro/tramways) would be situated at this centre.

• Most of the residences are within a five-minute stroll of the centre, an average of approximately four-hundred meters (400 m).

• There are a diversity of residential types so that young and old, singles and families, the poor and affluent may find dwellings to live in.

• At the brink of the neighbourhood there are workplaces and shops of adequately varied sorts to source the weekly essentials of a household.

• An elementary school is near enough so that most children can walk from their home.

• There are lesser playgrounds available to every residence – not more than 150 m away.

• Streets within the neighbourhood form a linked network, which dissolves traffic by offering a selection of pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination.

• The streets are fairly narrow and sheltered with rows of trees. This reduces traffic, creating an appropriate atmosphere for bicycles and pedestrians.

• Certain prominent sites at the termination of street vistas or in the neighbourhood centre are reserved for civic buildings. These provide sites for community meetings, education, and religious or cultural activities.

(Ieneurbanity, “10 PIU in City Planning and Urban Design”, March 2015) 5

New Urbanism also has fundamental approaches with guidelines, as phrased by “The Philosophies/Principles of Intelligent Urbanism” (PIU) prepared by Prof. Christopher Charles Benninger. The PIU is a philosophy of urban development poised of a set of ten (10) ‘laws’ intended to guide the preparation of city plans and urban design.  These guidelines/’laws’ intend to reunite and incorporate various urban development and management concerns.  According to Prof. C.C. Benninger, some of these ‘laws’ are:

i. A balance with nature (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
Once a point of no return is reached, anthropogenic use of natural assets will outdo the natural capability of the
ecosystem to regenerate. This value encourages environmental valuations to recognize delicate zones, helpless
habitats and bionetworks that are able to be improved through protection, density regulation, land-use
development and open-space design.

ii. A balance with tradition (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
This urban planning value stresses respect for the traditional and historical heritage and ethics of a place. Development resolutions must function within the stability of tradition (supporting, shielding and stabilising generic works and fundamentals of the urban outline) while concerning the cultural and social badge of regions, distinctive local knowledge, their signs and symbols that are articulated through art, urban space and architecture.

iii. Conviviality (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
Exciting societies are communal, publicly engaging and offer their inhabitants plentiful opportunities for congregation and meeting one another, which are space specific – therefore it is achieved through design. The hierarchies can be theorised as an organism of social layers, with each layer having a matching physical place in the settlement structure. This consist of a place for individuals, for friendships, for householders, for the neighbourhood, for societies, and for the city territory.

iv. Efficiency (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
A key concern of this value is transportation. While understanding and recognising the suitability of personal vehicles, it tries to put expenditures (such as energy consumption, large paved areas, parking, accidents and pollution) on the users of private vehicles. Respectable city planning values encourage alternate modes of public transport, other than a dependence on personal vehicles.

v. Human scale (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
The human scale value is in support of eliminating artificial obstacles and endorses face-to-face contact, providing sociable places, pedestrian paths and community areas where people can socialise. These can be parks, gardens, arcades, courtyards, street cafés as well as a selection of inside-outside spaces.

vi. Opportunity matrix (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
This value visualises the urban fabric as a vehicle for social, personal and economic development, by means of interaction with a range of services, facilities, establishments and information offering a selection of opportunities for greater education, economic engagement, employment, and recreation. This value proposes to intensify contact
with housing, health care and human resources progression, as well as an increase in hygienic and safety conditions.

vii. Balanced movement (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
This value agrees to the vehicle system, yet believes that it should not be made necessary by design. A well designed city (based off of this value) would be concentrated and condensed beside (near at the very least) mass transportation passageways. This concentration should also be nearby key urban centres (hubs) that perform as unrestricted access and urban hospitality to urban niceties and services. Consequently, if the movement of all passageways are stable and in equilibrium the urban, social and
economic infrastructures will, correspondingly, be strengthened.

viii. Institutional integrity (C. Benninger, 2001) 6
This value lays prominence on the notion that solid integrity are only able to be achieved through (accountable, clear, competent and involved) local governance, founded on public accountabilities, obligations, applicable directories and due


Figure 3: Urban Planning Proposal of an Urban District with Residential, Commercial and Retail for Glasmacherviertel in Dusseldorf, Germany – a prime example of well planned New Urbanism where everything is connected

Source: By ISR Innovative Urban and Spacial Planning GmbH as seen on

The aforementioned are the prominent characteristics and values of the New Urbanism movement – which should be sufficient to draw solid arguments and a final conclusion.

Thesen Island, Knysna, Western Cape, South Africa

Thesen Island was named in 1923 after Charles Wilhelm Thesen who established a timber processing plant on the island back in 1922. Thesen was the son of Arndt Leonard Thesen, a timber merchant, who left his home in Norway in 1869 with his family to begin a new life in New Zealand; however, their ship ran into difficulties near Cape Town (South Africa) which lead the family to stay for good. Barloworld (then Barlows) – then and still one of South Africa’s leading mining, production and distribution companies – bough the island and its timber treatment plant from Thesen and Co. in the late 1980’s. Soon after, Barlows realised that the timber processing undertakings could not continue in the heart of such an eco-sensitive and scenic lagoon. Simultaneously, an ever-growing community concern was noted regarding the industrial and environmental pollution caused by the factory’s undertakings.  For approximately eight (8) years the uninhibited buildings, waste dumps and machinery became a health hazard and a monstrosity to the local community. A South African environmental designer and environmental engineer,
Dr. Chris Mulder, had a new outlook for the derelict island – to turn it into a distinctive residential marina. The planning of the “new” Thesen Island called for extremely careful and sensitive development schemes – due to the Knysna River estuary being one of South Africa’s most sensitive ecosystems as well as a tourist attraction.  The planning process included specific focus on ecological, aesthetic, engineering, cultural, social and architectural related concerns. In 2001, ten (10) years passed since the initial dream was conceived to achieve a final approval.

(TIHOA, “History”, n.d.) 7

Within Thesen Island, the neighbourhood has no noticeable centre. Although the ratio between residential, commercial and retail may be acceptable, the residential areas do seem overpowering due to the fact that the commercial and retail areas are not centralised on the island but rather to one side – resulting in the island having a
lopsided appear.  The furthest residential dwelling (home) is approximately one-thousand three-hundred meters (1300 m) from “Harbour Town” (commercial, retail and public accommodation – commercial town “centre” marked on Figure 4 in grey as “public vehicle access”). This would result in an approximate 15-20 minute walk. From “Harbour Town”, it is a further one-thousand three-hundred meters (1100 m) to the nearest petrol station (Caltex), “food lover’s market” (Fruit ‘n Veg) and super market (Pick ‘n Pay / Checkers) – all of which are in town (in Knysna, off Thesen Island).

The distance, for the furthest resident on Thesen Island, that one has to travel to the super market would result in two-thousand six-hundred meters (2400 m). The island boasts a respectable diverse society ranging from elderly (retired) folks to young families to holiday goers. However, Thesen Island residential homes were not intended to act as social housing, hence lower income individuals, families and pensioners would not be able to live on the island as it is too “upper class” – for a lack of a better suiting phrase. This makes the island exclusive and does have benefits like security for example. Yet there are social hierarchical issues it does not solve as they are not addressed.  The nearest primary school (Knysna Primary School) and high school (Knysna High) is nine hundred meters (900 m) and one-thousand five-hundred meters (1500 m), respectively, away from “Harbour Town”. The schools are all located in town (off Thesen Island).
The neighbourhood has an abundance of grassed areas for children to play, dogs to walk and residents to enjoy picnics. These grassed patches can be located near each dwelling as well as some public accommodation areas.  “Harbour Town”, the apartment areas as well as public accommodation areas are all well connected with linking streets that are pedestrian friendly. The gated/private residential houses (as indicated in Figure 4 – large yellow area) are leaning towards urban sprawling with cul-de-sacs ending the street. These cul-de-sacs are not well linked which would lead to congested traffic in some circumstances; however due to Thesen Islands small population traffic is not congested and hardily a serious issue.


Figure 4: Diagram of Current Thesen Island Layout (note that this is purely a graphical representation)

Source: Image retrieved from Google Earth – graphically adapted by W. Retief, 2018

All streets on Thesen Island are narrow as well as paved with brick pavers. This not only slows down vehicular speed but also promotes pedestrian movement – handing over the hierarchy to pedestrians and cyclists. The main (and only) access road into Thesen Island has a very well defined termination point in the form of a mini-waterfront with local restaurants, retailers and businesses. In the neighbourhood, however, streets end in cul-de-sacs (that does not necessarily promote social interactions) that decreases access to and from “Harbour Town” – less routes lengthens streets and consequently motivates driving and demotivates the notion of walking – driving is anti-social.

The gated/private neighbourhood also does not have many community gathering points with restaurants, civic, commercial (including entertainment) or retail buildings apart from the recreational activities area (as indicated in Figure 4). This leads to an unsociable community where everyone uses vehicular transportation to do their weekly shopping instead of walking to a super market within a five minute stroll. It can be assumed that the gated/private neighbourhood is gated for security reasons.

Thesen Island has recognised the unique biodiversity of the ecosensitive and scenic lagoon and has acted on regenerating this delicate zone and related bionetworks through protection (establishing a “no-go” area where development is not allowed – as indicated in Figure4),
density regulation and open-space areas.

(CMAI, “Thesen Island Development”, n.d.) 8


Figure 5: Map of island flags representing each island

Source: Courtesy of Thesen Island Properties from http://www.thesenislandsproperties.com/map.php

ti flag

Figure 6: “Harbour Town” flag displayed on timber banner

Source: Image retrieved from Google Earth by W. Retief, 2018

Historical ethics and tradition within Thesen Island is evident – woven into the urban fabric of the place. The Boatshed now the Lofts Hotel (one of the public accommodation hotels) is built where the old boatshed used to be as well as the Turbine Hotel that is built over the site of the original timber processing plant where one can still see some of the old (restored) machinery, which was used in the plant, being featured in the building. The gated/private neighbourhood is divided into small community sections (blocks more-or-less) with each a flag as a symbol (international maritime signal flags). These flags were used by local boating communities (before newer technology emerged) as communication codes/signals – now the flags have found a new purpose acting as area symbols – a nod to the days of yore. The flags are displayed on street corners on timber posts.

(CMAI, “The Boatshed”, n.d.) 9
(CMAI, “The Turbine Boutique Hotel”, n.d.) 10

turbine 01

Figure 7: The Old Timber Processing Plant

Source: Courtesy of CMAI from https://www.cmai.co.za/01-copy-of-the-turbine

turbine 02

Figure 8: The New Turbine Boutique Hotel

Source: Courtesy of CMAI from https://www.cmai.co.za/01-copy-of-the-turbine

As mentioned before, the gated neighbourhood lacks in conviviality due to an absence of communal spaces – for a residential community of this size at least three (3) communal, publicly engaging and congregation points/nodes are required.  South Africa’s transportation system is lacking to say the least – even more so in small cities such as Knysna and becomes even rarer further out (such as Thesen Island). Currently, the only form of public transport system to and from the island are local minibus taxis. Compared to Europe or North America, our transport system is questionable to say the least however CMAI (Dr. Mulder’s company – the architecture firm responsible for Thesen Island as we see it today) is in the process of establishing a city bus and water-taxi route system for the city of Knysna where Thesen Island would also receive a bus and water-taxi stop. It is estimated that planning for the inter-city bus
route will commence soon.

(CMAI, “”Knysna Integrated Transport System”, n.d.) 11

Human scale factors on the gated neighbourhood side, however present, is little and not enough to endorse face-to-face contact and sociable events on a daily basis. “Harbour Town” has plentiful cafés, arcades and inside-outside areas where people can socialise. The island has no healthcare or education institutions present – this, again, promotes vehicular movement out of the island to healthcare and educational civics as walking may be too far for some individuals (not to mention safety while walking). The island does, however, offer opportunities for economic engagement and employment such as sales clerks, assistants, waiters/servers, domestic workers, gardeners as well as many specialised opportunities (architects, real-estate agents, chefs and craftsmen of various types).


Figure 9: Thesen Island Aerial View

Source: Image acquired from Holiday Apartments at

Thesen Island has exceptional institutional integrity. The island has a highly functional home owner’s association – the TIHOA (Thesen Island Home Owner’s Association) which has bi-monthly meetings. TIHOA also works hand-inhand with the TIDRP (Thesen Island Design Review Panel) to resolve any queries, design changes, alterations and extensions and any new structure/built environment within the whole of Thesen Island. From personal experience, these boards are well-oiled machines.  Thesen Island is certainly regarded as one of the best examples of premier Marinas and Waterfront developments in the world and of New Urbanism in South Africa. However, it is far from being the perfect model for New Urbanism (when regarding the movement’s characteristics and the Principles of Intelligent Urbanism).

Perhaps it was never intended to satisfy the entire movement by the book, but it certainly has merit in a South African context. Thesen Island should be regarded as a triumph, not for New Urbanism, but for the sole reason that it will be used as a stepping stone into a New Urbanist framework for future developments in South Africa.

UniverCity (East Neighbourhood), Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Geoff Massey and Arthur Erickson submitted their preliminary plan for Simon Fraser University (SFU) in 1963 with the dream that it would act as a keystone for a new residential, mixed-use community at the top of Burnaby Mountain in British Colombia, Canada. Thirty-two (32) years later, the then City of Burnaby Mayor William Copeland
and SFU President John Stubbs retained a “Memorandum of Understanding” to commence the planning process in 1995. The City of Burnaby secured three-hundred and twenty hectares (320 ha) of then University-owned property that was scheduled to be incorporated into the larger Burnaby Mountain Conservation Area. In return for the handing over of the property, the City granted STF planning support to commence developing a community – this was later named “UniverCity”. The Official Community Plan (OCP) and the Zoning By-law Amendments for the development was accepted by the City of Burnaby in 1996, setting the (figurative) ball in-motion.

(UniverCity, “About Us – History”, n.d.) 12

site dia

Figure 10: Diagram of UniverCity – indicating various zones

Source: Image retrieved from Google Earth – altered by W. Retief, 2018

Roughly sixty-five hectares (65 ha) of land adjoining the SFU property was allocated to hold a dense, mixed-use community – this was the aim of the OCP. The scheme allowed for up to four-thousand five-hundred and thirty-six (4536) residential units in two (2) unique neighbourhoods – one to the South and another to the East of the SFU campus – each with its own primary (elementary) school and neighbourhood-park.

(UniverCity, “About Us – History”, n.d.) 12

Arrangements for an extensive network of pedestrian paths and bike trails, a commercial core and public services was comprised in the OCP. UniverCity was projected to house up to ten-thousand (10 000) citizens.  To create a more “complete community” with a diverse range of shops, facilities and housing choices; to establish an Endowment Fund supporting research and teaching at SFU – these were the two (2) key goals of SFU for the planning and development of the residential community. The Burnaby Mountain Community Corporation was founded in order to supervise the planning and development of UniverCity in 1997.

(UniverCity, “About Us – History”, n.d.) 12

site dia 02

Figure 11: Diagram of UniverCity – indicating various points of interest

Source: Image retrieved from Google Earth – altered by W. Retief, 2018

The neighbourhoods does have a noticeable centre in that the primary bus station can be deemed as the centre and is located approximately five-hundred and fifty meters (550 m) away from the majority of residential dwellings. This would accumulate to an eight-to-ten minute (8-10 min) walk.  The dwelling units are diverse in terms of size, views, pathways and location – this makes it very suitable for almost any type of market, whether it be students, young families, single working-class individuals or elderly (pensioners) people. The units may also be (possibly) be affordable to lower-income people as the units most likely target student as opposed to families.

(UniverCity, “The Community – Neighbourhoods”, n.d.) 13

The local shops, commercial facilities, restaurants and retail stores are located approximately four-hundred and fifty meters (450 m) away from the majority of residential dwellings. The child care centre is very close to the residential units as well as the primary (elementary) school, approximately one-hundred and fifty meters (150 m) – most possibly due to families living in the area. Thus cancelling out the need for vehicular transport – individuals might rather opt to walk to purchase their goods as it is close enough.

(UniverCity, “Planning + Development – SFU OCP”, n.d.) 14

The local primary (elementary) school is located approximately three-hundred meters (300 m) away from the majority of the residential dwellings – short footpaths access the school premises directly from nearly every neighbourhood block. There is a local park (Richard Bolton Park) available where children are able to play around. The park is located just behind the school – making it a safe environment for children to be around. It is approximately two-hundred and fifty meters (250 m) away from the majority of the residential dwellings.

(UniverCity, “The Community – Childcare + Education”, n.d.) 15


Figure 12: Commercial (retail, restaurants, and shops) area in UniveCity

Source: Image acquired from Dialog – SFU at

Footpath directly from neighbourhood blocks make quick shortcuts very nifty in terms of time saved for pedestrian and bicycle movement. There are also a few different routes to take that would all end at the major bus station – this dissolves traffic congestion. The streets are narrow and sheltered with rows of trees, bushes and shrubs – which slows traffic speed down even further making the streets safer for pedestrians and cyclists. The narrow streets allows for pedestrians and cyclists to dictate the street, hence, shifting the hierarchical order from vehicle to pedestrian and bicycle.  The main axis of the SFU is a footpath starting at the major bus station (“town centre”) has incremental ending destinations. When starting at the bus station, individuals would first encounter the InterFAITH Centre of SFU straight ahead. From there, continuing, a commercial hub (“the Convocation Mall”) is encountered. This “Convocation Mall” is located approximately fifty meters (50 m) from a bus station.

(UniverCity, “Planning + Development – SFU OCP”, n.d.) 14


Figure 13: Convocation Mall in SFU

Source: Image received from Jeff Hitchcock at https://www.flickr.com/photos/arbron/6669495059

Nature clearly plays an important role within UniverCity. Streets are glazed with green almost to a point of hiding the ground storeys from view. The “swing area” (which is a conservation area) is protected by the SFU and is marked as a zone then may not be touched. The SFU also has a two hectare (2 ha) greenhouse facility, which acts as a research unit for the SFU. There is also a community garden located within Naheeno Park for the community to rent out and utilise in any way they seem fit.

(UniverCity, “The Community – Parks + Greenspaces”, n.d.) 16

One of the most significant and sensitive wilderness preserves in Metro Vancouver is the Burnaby Mountain Conservation Area – UniverCity is designed to take advantage of this prime location.  UniverCity saw this as an opportunity to rehabilitate and preserve this scenic and biodiverse location through means of stormwater management, local planting guidelines and tree protection.

(UniverCity, “Sustainability – Stormwater Management”, n.d.) 17

UniverCity has implemented an award-winning stormwater management system that is extremely comprehensive.  The system mimics nature through means of returning nearly all (almost 100%) of the stormwater back to the ground, instead of diverting the large amounts of water into conventional drainage pipes or stormwater sewers. The objective of this system maintain pre-developed stormwater runoff quality and quantity – this then means that “a salmon swimming in a stream at the bottom of Burnaby Mountain would have no clue that a thriving urban community exists at the top”.

(UniverCity, “Sustainability – Stormwater Management”, n.d.) 17

UniverCity has a wide variety of convivial spaces such as the bicycle race course, the convocation mall, the town square (historical landmark) and the market spaces (commercial areas). Transportation is a major key in this community – according to a 2014 consensus, only 42% of all people in the community used vehicles as a mode of transportation. This meant that 58% of the daily population within the community made use of walking, cycling or public bus transport as a mode of movement.

(UniverCity, “Sustainability – Transportation”, n.d.) 18

UniverCity offers immense opportunities in various aspects. Greater education is first on the list naturally as well as primary education. Recreational opportunities include hiking trails, mountain biking, agricultural land-works as well as the SFU gymnasium and the archaeology & ethnology museum.

(UniverCity, “Arts + Culture – SFU Amneties”, n.d.) 19

UniverCity has won numerous awards for its urban sustainability, planning and incorporation into the site and housing schemes. These awards include:

• Urban Land Institute’s (ULI) Awards for Excellence: The Americas

• 2008 Best Practices in Affordable Housing award, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)

• 2008 LivCom Award

• APA 2008 National Planning Excellence Award

(UniverCity, “Media + Research – Awards + Accolades”, n.d.) 20


Figure 14: Urban Streetscape in UniverCity

Source: Image acquired from ITC Construction Group at

A strong argument can be made that UniverCity does comply with the New Urbanism movement as it includes nearly all of the characteristics of New Urbanism. It also took into account the Principles of Intelligent Urbanism and made it its own through going the extra mile regarding sustainability. UniverCity is certainly in a new class of presidents for new educational as well as general neighbourhood developments, not only in Canada but around the world.

Are Current Planning Schemes for Neighbourhoods and Cities Working or Should New Urbanism Take Charge?

New Urbanism has made an undeniable argument in that neighbourhoods need to be connected on all levels. People should live close to one-another in order for communities to thrive and there are prime examples of thriving cities where New Urbanism have been employed – Paris (Av. des Champs-Élysées), Barcelona (La Rambla and City centre),
Venice, New York, London and Vancouver to name a few. New Urbanism has changed communities’ way of interacting for the better as it encourages people to live and work for one another other than for themselves. This is after all what a community is – people living, working and being recreational, together.



1. Boeing; et al. (2014). “LEED-ND and Liveability Revisited”. Berkeley Planning Journal. 27: 31–55, viewed on 26 July 2018

2. Kelbaugh, Douglas S. 2002. Repairing the American Metropolis: Common Place Revisited. Seattle: University of Washington
Press. 161., viewed on 26 July 2018

3. NewUrbanism, “New Urbanism-principles-of-new-urbanism”, n.d., viewed on 27 July 2018, from http://www.newurbanism.org.

4. Wear. A., “Planning, Funding and Delivering Social Infrastructure…”, viewed on 27 July 2018

5. Ieneurbanity, 2015 “10 Principles of Intelligent Urbanism in City Planning and Urban Design”, viewed on 27 July 2018

6. C. Benninger, 2001, “Principles of Intelligent Urbanism”, viewed on 27 July 2018

7. TIHOA, “History”, n.d., in Thesen Island, viewed on 28 July 2018, from http://www.thesenislands.co.za/about/history.html

8. CMAI, “”Thesen Island Development”, n.d., in CMAI – Developments, viewed on 28 July 2018, from

9. CMAI, “”The Boatshed”, n.d. in CMAI – Hotels, viewed on 28 July 2018, from https://www.cmai.co.za/02-copy-of-the-lofts-hotel

10. CMAI, “”The Turbine Boutique Hotel”, n.d., in CMAI – Hotels, viewed on 28 July 2018, from https://www.cmai.co.za/01-copy-ofthe-

11. CMAI, “”Knysna Integrated Transport System”, n.d. CMAI – Developments, viewed on 28 July 2018, from

12. UniverCity, “About Us – History”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 29 July, from http://univercity.ca/about-us/history/

13. UniverCity, “The Community – Neighbourhoods”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 29 July, from http://univercity.ca/thecommunity/

14. UniverCity, “Planning + Development – SFU OCP”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 29 July, from http://univercity.ca/planningdevelopment/

15. UniverCity, “The Community – Childcare + Education”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 29 July, from http://univercity.ca/thecommunity/

16. UniverCity, “The Community – Parks + Greenspaces”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 29 July, from http://univercity.ca/thecommunity/

17. UniverCity, “Sustainability – Stormwater Management”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 30 July, from

18. UniverCity, “Sustainability – Transportation”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 30 July, from

19. UniverCity, “Arts + Culture – SFU Amneties”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 30 July, from http://univercity.ca/culture-events/sfuamenities/

20. UniverCity, “Media + Research – Awards + Accolades”, n.d. UniverCity, viewed on 30 July, from


If you’ve made it this far – congratulations; I hope you found this research paper interesting.


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